Clinical Pathology

While anatomic pathologists examine tissue samples, clinical pathologists focus on blood, bodily fluids, tissue and microscopic cell evaluation (such as bone marrow). Our veterinary clinical pathologists and medical technologists provide GLP/GCP results for discovery, preclinical and clinical research. Clinical pathologists closely monitor animal health in collaboration with veterinarians and provide consultation to toxicologists and study directors during protocol development and during the study, advising on appropriate tests and biomarkers for inclusion. In addition, all clinical pathology contributor reports are authored by board-certified clinical pathologists.

Clinical Pathology Study Support

  • Analytic evaluations on samples, collected from living humans and animals
  • Fluid examinations  
  • Multiple collections during a study (depending on species)
  • Toxicology and histopathology findings correlations 
  • Nonclinical or clinical pathology study (see clinical testing services)
file

Common Evaluations for Clinical Pathology

Hematology & Coagulation

  • Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit
  • MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
  • White blood cell count
  • Absolute differential white blood cell count
  • Platelet count, MPV
  • Absolute reticulocyte count
  • Blood cell smear (or blood cell morphology)
  • Prothrombin time (PT)
  • Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
  • Fibrinogen

Clinical Chemistry

  • Glucose
  • Urea nitrogen, creatinine
  • Total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio
  • Cholesterol, triglycerides
  • Total bilirubin
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT)
  • Creatine kinase (CK)
  • Calcium, inorganic phosphorus
  • Sodium, potassium, chloride

Urinalysis & Urine Chemistry

  • Volume, usually overnight (e.g., 16 or 24 hours)
  • Appearance (color and turbidity)
  • Specific gravity (or osmolality)
  • Reagent strip tests: pH, protein, occult blood, glucose, ketones, bilirubin.
  • Microscopic exam of sediment: RBCs, WBCs, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, sperm.
  • Urine Chemistry - not done routinely (any species)
  • Electrolytes or other urine analytes

Other

  • Bone marrow smear exam: myeloid:erythroid (M:E ratio); qualitative cytologic exam (subjective assessment); quantitative (full or modified myelogram using 200 or 500 cell differential)
  • Other body fluids: cell counts and cytology using cytospin preparation: CSF, synovial, ocular fluids
  • Additional biomarkers:
    • Liver
    • Cardiac
    • Renal (kidney)
    • Muscle
  • Markers of inflammation including cytokines and acute phase proteins
  • Consult Clinical Pathologists for other non-routine test requests

Want to learn more?