Special Chemistry includes six main sections: coagulation, electrophoresis, nephelometry, liquid chromatography, toxicology, and small instruments such as ion detectors.  Many tests are relatively manual compared to other laboratory areas, and the term "special" is appropriate as many of the assays are developed specifically for individual clients.

Special Chemistry provides testing on a variety of specimen types, and serves as a key provider when focusing on multiple myeloma disease; clinical assessment of serum and urine proteins; sensitive and selective determination of steroid levels or biomarkers using LC-MS/MS; coagulation; and customized and comprehensive urine drug screens.