DNA damage checkpoints are biochemical pathways that delay or arrest the cell cycle
progression in response to the DNA damage. All eukaryotic cells have four phases within
the cell cycle, G1, S, G2, and M, and one outside, G0 .
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a T cell derived multifunctional
cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses.
IL-4 induces Th2 (T helper 2) differentiation, causes
macrophage suppression, and stimulates B cell production of Immunoglobulins E, G1 and G4
The cytokine Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)
is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes, macrophages and
lymphocytes constitutively express MIF, which is rapidly
released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines.
MIF exerts potent proinflammatory ...
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a
pluripotent cytokine involved in inflammation and immune responses as well as in growth
factor-dependent cell proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis , , , ...
VEGF family of ligands and receptors is crucial for vascular development and
neovascularization in physiological and pathological processes in both embryo and adult.
VEGFR-2 is a high-affinity receptor for
VEGF-A. Activated VEGFR-2 can
activate p38 MAPK, PI3K reg class
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands and receptors is
crucial for vascular development and neovascularization in physiological and pathological
processes in both embryo and adult . VEGFs denote a family of homodimeric
glycoproteins that currently ...
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the
pituitary gland and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues. This hormone
affects a great amount of physiological processes . Numerous biological
functions have been attributed to this hormone's ...
Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components activate
innate immune system of the host and induce secretion of proinflammatory molecules,
mainly chemokines and cytokines . Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate
signaling cascades through ...
The members of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family (TNFs) may induce both
apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways. TNFs transduces cellular responses through
activation of different TNF-receptors (TNFRs).
One important mechanism of cell survival is the activation of transcription of