Extracellular stimuli elicit changes in gene expression in target cells by activating
intracellular protein kinase cascades that phosphorylate transcription factors within the
nucleus. One of the best characterized stimulus-induced transcription factors is cyclic
AMP (cAMP) responsive element binding ...
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a T cell derived multifunctional
cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses.
IL-4 induces Th2 (T helper 2) differentiation, causes
macrophage suppression, and stimulates B cell production of Immunoglobulins E, G1 and G4
Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that mediate anti-viral responses,
inhibit proliferation and participate in immune surveillance and tumor suppression by
inducing the transcription of a number of IFN-stimulated genes. The IFN family includes
two main classes of related cytokines, type ...
There are two families of transcription factors that play pivotal roles
during mammalian skeletal muscle differentiation. One of them includes MyoD family
proteins (also called myogenic regulatory factors or MRFs), with four members Myf5,
Myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD), Myogenin
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the
ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases that contains four
closely related members EGFR and ERBB2-4. They couple the
binding of the extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways
that regulate diverse ...
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands and receptors is
crucial for vascular development and neovascularization in physiological and pathological
processes in both embryos, and in adults .
VEGFs belong to a family of homodimeric glycoproteins ...
The biological importance of PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2, or Focal
adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1)-mediated signal transduction is
underscored by the fact that this tyrosine kinase plays a fundamental role in embryonic
development, in control of cell migration, cell cycle progression, and in apoptosis.
Activation by ligands of G-protein coupled
receptors that interact with the trimeric G-protein alpha-12/beta/gamma
causes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to G protein alpha subunits followed by
dissociation of the beta/gamma heterodimers. Free alpha and beta/gamma subunits are
active and ...