Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a T cell derived multifunctional
cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses.
IL-4 induces Th2 (T helper 2) differentiation, causes
macrophage suppression, and stimulates B cell production of Immunoglobulins E, G1 and G4
Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that mediate anti-viral responses,
inhibit proliferation and participate in immune surveillance and tumor suppression by
inducing the transcription of a number of IFN-stimulated genes. The IFN family includes
two main classes of related cytokines, type ...
There are two families of transcription factors that play pivotal roles
during mammalian skeletal muscle differentiation. One of them includes MyoD family
proteins (also called myogenic regulatory factors or MRFs), with four members Myf5,
Myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD), Myogenin
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the
ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases that contains four
closely related members EGFR and ERBB2-4. They couple the
binding of the extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways
that regulate diverse ...
Cell migration is a coordinated process that involves rapid changes in the dynamics of
actin filaments, together with the formation and disassembly of cell adhesion sites.
External stimuli that control cell migration are transduced into intracellular
biochemical signals through the interactions of ...
Guanine nucleotide binding protein
(G-proteins) are heterotrimeric signaling molecules composed
of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, which dissociate receptor-induced exchange on
the alpha subunit and beta/gamma heterodimer subunit. The G-protein-coupled receptors
(GPCRs) initiate diverse ...
The commencement of the cell cycle coincides with the production and the stabilization
of the Cyclin D. The D-type cyclins are essential for
synchronization of the cell cycle machinery with extracellular signals. 
Expression and stability of Cyclin D is ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced
by various types of lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells, such as T cells, B cells, monocytes,
fibroblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, mesangial cells and several tumor cells.
IL-6 provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological