Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) belongs
to the Rho subgroup of a family of small GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) called
monomeric G-proteins. Proteins belonging to the Rho subgroup are involved in cytoskeletal
control, regulation of the formation of the stress fibers, focal ...
The biological importance of PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2, or Focal
adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1)-mediated signal transduction is
underscored by the fact that this tyrosine kinase plays a fundamental role in embryonic
development, in control of cell migration, cell cycle progression, and in apoptosis.
Activation by ligands of G-protein coupled
receptors that interact with the trimeric G-protein alpha-12/beta/gamma
causes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to G protein alpha subunits followed by
dissociation of the beta/gamma heterodimers. Free alpha and beta/gamma subunits are
active and ...
A wide variety of soluble signaling mediators utilize the Protein
kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA) pathway to regulate cellular
processes including intermediary metabolism, ion channel conductivity, and transcription.
PKA plays a central role in cytoskeletal regulation and cell
Calcium(Ca('2+)) is a
common second messenger that regulates many processes in the cell (e.g., contraction,
secretion, synaptic transmission, fertilization, nuclear pore regulation, transcription).
In cardiac myocytes and muscle cells, Ca('2+) concentrations
alternate between ...
Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) downstream
effector Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase
(ROCK) directly phosphorylates LIM domain kinases 1 and 2
(LIMK1 and LIMK2) that in turn
phosphorylates Cofilin. Cofilin
exhibits Actin-depolymerizing ...
Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors composed
of alpha- and beta-subunits. It is known that at least 18 distinct alpha subunits and 8
or more beta subunits lead to generation of 24 alpha/beta heterodimeric receptors. Most
integrins recognize extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such ...
Protein kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA) is an enzyme playing
key role in a number of cellular processes. In its inactivated state,
PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits
(PKA-cat alpha and PKA-cat
beta) and two regulatory subunits (PKA-reg) (alpha ...
Cytoskeleton of most eukaryotic cells consists of three distinct, yet interconnected,
filament systems: actin filaments,
microtubules and intermediate filaments (IF). IF network is
critically involved in cell shape control and imparts intracellular mechanical