GTPases of the Ras superfamily are activated upon growth factors stimuli and controls
a wide range of essential biochemical pathways in all eukaryotic cells. One of the most
important functions of Ras proteins is activation of mitogen activated protein kinases
(MAPK). MAPK pathways are important ...
Neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (N-RAS)
belongs to Ras family of small GTPases. It serves as a signal transducer from growth
factor receptors and activates numerous effector molecules resulting in cell growth,
differentiation and survival , [
Extracellular stimuli elicit changes in gene expression in target cells by activating
intracellular protein kinase cascades that phosphorylate transcription factors within the
nucleus. One of the best characterized stimulus-induced transcription factors is cyclic
AMP (cAMP) responsive element binding ...
DNA damage checkpoints are biochemical pathways that delay or arrest the cell cycle
progression in response to the DNA damage. All eukaryotic cells have four phases within
the cell cycle, G1, S, G2, and M, and one outside, G0 .
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate a variety of physiological
processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. To date, three
MAPK pathways have been characterized in detail. The extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)
pathway is activated by a large ...
The commencement of the cell cycle coincides with the production and the stabilization
of the Cyclin D. The D-type cyclins are essential for
synchronization of the cell cycle machinery with extracellular signals. 
Expression and stability of Cyclin D is ...
DNA damage checkpoints are biochemical pathways that delay or halt cell cycle
progression in response to DNA damage. Cell cycle proceeds in four phases in all somatic
eukaryotic cells, G1, S, G2, and M, and one outside the cycle per se, G0 .
RAC-alpha serine/threonine kinases (AKTs) are crucial
mediators of various cellular process, such as apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle,
protein synthesis and regulation of metabolism. The activity of
AKT is modulated by various proteins, including
Protein kinase cAMP-dependent (PKA) is an enzyme playing
key role in a number of cellular processes. In its inactivated state,
PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits
(PKA-cat alpha and PKA-cat
beta) and two regulatory subunits (PKA-reg) (alpha ...