Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved type of programmed cell death essential for
development, homeostasis, and self-defense against infection. It can be triggered by a
number of factors including UV- or gamma-irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or
signaling by death receptors. There are two ...
Caspases are the central components of the apoptotic response. The apoptotic caspases
are generally divided into two classes: the initiator caspases, which include
-9 and -10 and the effector
caspases, which include caspases-3,
-6 and -7. ...
The Tumor protein p53 (p53) plays a critical role in
safeguarding the integrity of the genome. Upon activation,
p53 binds to the enhancer/promoter elements of downstream
target genes and regulates their transcription, through which it initiates cellular
programs that account for most ...
Death receptors such as FasR belong to a Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) superfamily of
receptors involved in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
FasR is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, but its
ligand FasL is expressed mainly in activated T lymphocytes
and natural ...
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a potent
cytokine produced by many cell types, including macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes,
keratinocytes and fibroblasts, in response to inflammation, infection, injury and other
environmental challenges. TNF-alpha elicits a particularly
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate a variety of physiological
processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. To date, three
MAPK pathways have been characterized in detail. The extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)
pathway is activated by a large ...
Activation by ligands of G-protein coupled
receptors that interact with the trimeric G-protein alpha-12/beta/gamma
causes the exchange of GDP for GTP bound to G protein alpha subunits followed by
dissociation of the beta/gamma heterodimers. Free alpha and beta/gamma subunits are
active and ...
RAC-alpha serine/threonine kinases (AKTs) are crucial
mediators of various cellular process, such as apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle,
protein synthesis and regulation of metabolism. The activity of
AKT is modulated by various proteins, including
Efficient and coordinated synthesis of the second messengers, including
Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), Diacylglycerol
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), is
necessary for normal cell functioning. Production of secondary messengers is regulated ...
Factors of the neurotrophin family (NGF,
BDNF and neurotrophins NT-3 and
NT-4/5), promote neuronal survival or death. The best
characterized receptors for these trophic factors are the tropomyosin-related tyrosine
kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB,
and TrkC, ...