Retinoid receptors are asymmetrically oriented Retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/ Retinoid
X receptor (RXR) heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences or Retinoic acid
response elements (RAREs) in the promoters of a large number of retinoid-target genes
, , ...
Extracellular stimuli elicit changes in gene expression in target cells by activating
intracellular protein kinase cascades that phosphorylate transcription factors within the
nucleus. One of the best characterized stimulus-induced transcription factors is cyclic
AMP (cAMP) responsive element binding ...
Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter factor (HGF) is a
multifunctional growth factor which induces cell dissociation, migration, protection from
apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation . Receptor Met
proto-oncogene (HGF receptor (Met))has tyrosine-kinase ...
The insulin-like growth factor system (IGF system) comprises two receptors:
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1 receptor) and
IGF-IIR with their respective ligands: Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2
(IGF-1 and IGF-2) and six
high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IBP).
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the
pituitary gland and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues. This hormone
affects a great amount of physiological processes . Numerous biological
functions have been attributed to this hormone's ...
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are
ligand-inducible transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor
superfamily. The PPAR group consists of three types:
and PPAR-gamma. They have some differences ...
Osteoporosis is a common disease affecting the majority of older women and a
significant minority of older men. It is defined as the gradual reduction in bone
strength with advancing age, particularly in post-menopause women. Osteoporosis is one of
the major and growing health care problems around ...
Leptin, the polypeptide product of the ob
gene, acts on the brain to regulate energy balance. It is hormone,
composed of 167 amino acid residues and produced almost exclusively in adipose tissue.
More-recent studies have revealed additional pleiotrophic functions of
Leptin, including ...
Insulin plays an important role in the overall regulation
of protein synthesis. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) is conventionally divided into
three stages: initiation, elongation and termination. Both initiation and elongation can
be controlled by Insulin.
The binding of Insulin to the extracellular domain of the
Insulin receptor results in the activation of the tyrosine
kinase activity of the receptor. Following the autophosphorylation, the
Insulin receptor phosphorylates a number of intracellular
substrates to initiate a series ...