The tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a potent
cytokine produced by many cell types, including macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes,
keratinocytes and fibroblasts, in response to inflammation, infection, injury and other
environmental challenges. TNF-alpha elicits a particularly
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the
ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases that contains four
closely related members EGFR and ERBB2-4. They couple the
binding of the extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways
that regulate diverse ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced
by various types of lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells, such as T cells, B cells, monocytes,
fibroblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, mesangial cells and several tumor cells.
IL-6 provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological
The cytokine Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)
is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes, macrophages and
lymphocytes constitutively express MIF, which is rapidly
released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines.
MIF exerts potent proinflammatory ...
The Mitogen-activated protein kinases 8-10
(JNK(MAPK8-10)) belong to a sub-group of evolutionarily
conserved mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activated primarily by cytokines,
growth factors and by exposure to environmental stress. JNK(MAPK8-10)
activity is regulated through ...
Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components activate
innate immune system of the host and induce secretion of proinflammatory molecules,
mainly chemokines and cytokines . Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate
signaling cascades through ...
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated macrophages,
endothelial cells, B cells and fibroblasts. IL-1 stimulates a broad spectrum of immune
and inflammatory responses , .
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is involved in normal physiological processes,
such as embryonic development, reproduction, proliferation, cell motility and adhesion,
wound healing, angiogenesis, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and
metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ...
The members of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family (TNFs) may induce both
apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways. TNFs transduces cellular responses through
activation of different TNF-receptors (TNFRs).
One important mechanism of cell survival is the activation of transcription of