Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved type of programmed cell death essential for
development, homeostasis, and self-defense against infection. It can be triggered by a
number of factors including UV- or gamma-irradiation, chemotherapeutic ...
Caspases are the central components of the apoptotic response. The apoptotic caspases
are generally divided into two classes: the initiator caspases, which include
-9 and -10 and the effector
caspases, which include ...
GTPases of the Ras superfamily are activated upon growth factors stimuli and controls
a wide range of essential biochemical pathways in all eukaryotic cells. One of the most
important functions of Ras proteins is activation of mitogen activated ...
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) belongs
to the Rho subgroup of a family of small GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) called
monomeric G-proteins. Proteins belonging to the Rho subgroup are involved in cytoskeletal
control, regulation ...
Neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (N-RAS)
belongs to Ras family of small GTPases. It serves as a signal transducer from growth
factor receptors and activates numerous effector molecules resulting in cell growth,
differentiation and survival ...
The Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) plays a crucial role
in immune and inflammatory responses through the regulation of genes encoding
pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, chemokines, growth factors and inducible
enzymes. Transcription factors ...
The Tumor protein p53 (p53) plays a critical role in
safeguarding the integrity of the genome. Upon activation,
p53 binds to the enhancer/promoter elements of downstream
target genes and regulates their transcription, through which it initiates ...
Death receptors such as FasR belong to a Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) superfamily of
receptors involved in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
FasR is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, but its
ligand FasL is expressed mainly in ...